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Source Image: PR239_01_02 of Sarcophagus of Sosia Herennia of Modena Museo Civico: Sarcophagi

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Description

Part-finished sarcophagus with roughed-out figures in the Museo Civico, Modena.

Monument
Modena Museo Civico: Sarcophagi 
Monument Part
Sarcophagus of Sosia Herennia 
Monument Type
Sarcophagus 
Material(s)
Prokonnesian Marble (Visual identification)  
Date
post ad 175 - pre ad 300 
Keywords
Relief SarcophagusLid  
Collections
Modena  

Location

Original Location
Modena 
Current Location
Museo Civico, Modena 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
The figures on the chest have been roughed-out with the point chisel held at a low angle, as shown by the parallel lines on their surface.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Steep (60-70°)
Force: Medium
Description
The portrait in the top left acroterion of the lid has also been simply roughed-out but in a different way from the figures on the chest.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Steep (60-70°)
Force: Medium
Description
The portrait in the right acroterion of the lid, however, has been carved a stage further, with work on defining the rough form of the figure underway.

Notes

The fact that the architectural framework and inscription on this sarcophagus have been carved but all the figures left roughly worked would seem to indicate a division of labour between multiple carvers with different specialists. Alternatively, if one carver worked on the whole project then they were keen to split their work into defined forms: architecture, inscriptions, figures. On an object this large it is possible that a team of carvers worked on it together, perhaps as many as four.

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