The quarries at Altıntaş, not far from Iscehisar, were a second source of purple-and-white marble, also known as pavonazzetto in the Roman period. The main
Moreperiod of exploitation of these quarries appears to have been in the early 2nd century AD, and like the nearby Iscehisar quarries they seem to have been run under imperial supervision.
Lazzarini, L., Moschini, G., Waelkens, M., and Xusheng, H. (1985). 'New light on some Phrygian marble quarries through a petrological study and the evaluation of Ca/Sr ratio', in P. Pensabene (ed.). <i>Marmi antichi: problemi d’impiego, di restauro e d’identificazione (=Studi Miscellanei<i/> 26). Rome: 41–6.
Waelkens, M., de Paepe, P., and Moens, L. (1986). 'Survey in the white marble quarries of Anatolia', <i>Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı </i>4: 113–26.
The quarries at Altıntaş, not far from Iscehisar, were a second source of purple-and-white marble, also known as pavonazzetto, in the Roman period. As at
MoreIscehisar roughed-out architectural elements have been found in the quarries, primarily column shafts.
Lazzarini, L., Moschini, G., Waelkens, M., and Xusheng, H. (1985). 'New light on some Phrygian marble quarries through a petrological study and the evaluation of Ca/Sr ratio', in P. Pensabene (ed.). <i>Marmi antichi: problemi d’impiego, di restauro e d’identificazione (=Studi Miscellanei</i> 26). Rome: 41–6.
Waelkens, M., de Paepe, P., and Moens, L. (1986). 'Survey in the white marble quarries of Anatolia', <i>Araştırma Sonuçları Toplantısı</i> 4: 113–26.
The so-called 'City Quarries' at Aphrodisias are located 2 km to the north of the city and are easily accessible. White, grey and dark grey
Moremarble were quarried in this area, all of it destined for building and carving projects in the city.
Lazzarini, L., Ponti, G., Preite Martinez, M., Rockwell, P., and Turi, B. (2002). 'Historical, technical, petrographic, and isotopic features of Aphrodisian marble', in J. Herrmann, N. Herz, and R. Newman (eds). <i>Interdisciplinary studies on ancient stone. International Conference of the Association for the Study of Marble and Other Stones in Antiquity (5th: 1998: Boston, Mass.)</i> (ASMOSIA 5). London: 163–68.
Long, L. (2012). 'The regional marble quarries', in C. Ratté and P. De Staebler (eds). <i>The Aphrodisias regional survey</i> (Aphrodisias 5). Mainz: 165–201.
Ponti, G. (1996). 'Ancient quarrying at Aphrodisias in the light of geological configuration', in C. Roueché and R. R. R. Smith (eds). <i>Aphrodisias papers 3: the setting and quarries, mythological and other sculptural decoration, architectural development, Portico of Tiberius, and Tetrapylon: including the papers given at the Fourth International Aphrodisias Colloquium held at King's College, London on 14 March, 1992, in memory of Kenan T. Erim</i> (Journal of Roman Archaeology supplementary series 20). Ann Arbor MI: 105–10.
Rockwell, P. (1996). 'The marble quarries: a preliminary study', in C. Roueché and R. R. R. Smith (eds). <i>Aphrodisias papers 3: the setting and quarries, mythological and other sculptural decoration, architectural development, Portico of Tiberius, and Tetrapylon: including the papers given at the Fourth International Aphrodisias Colloquium held at King's College, London on 14 March, 1992, in memory of Kenan T. Erim</i> (Journal of Roman Archaeology supplementary series 20). Ann Arbor MI: 81–104.
This gate to the South Agora at Aphrodisias provided a monumental entrance to the city's second most important public plaza. The gate was probably first
Moreerected in the 1st century AD but was modified in Late Antiquity and turned in a nymphaeum.
Linant de Bellefonds, P. (2009). <i>The mythological reliefs from the agora gate</i> (Aphrodisias 4). Mainz.
Numerous apprentice pieces, both hands and feet, have been found at Aphrodisias. These appear to have been exercises that trainee carvers performed during their apprenticeships.
MoreJ. A. van (1998). ‘Apprentices’ pieces and the training of sculptors at Aphrodisias’, <i>Journal of Roman Archaeology</i> 11: 175–92.
Voorhis, J. A. van (2008). ‘The training of marble sculptors at Aphrodisias’, in R. R. R. Smith and J. L. Lenaghan (eds). <i>Aphrodisias’tan Roma Portretleri=Roman Portraits from Aphrodisias</i>. Istanbul: 120–35.
The Civil Basilica was one of the most important civic structures at Aphrodisias. Built in the Flavian period it is one of the largest known
Morein Asia Minor. In Late Antiquity, the interior of the basilica was decorated with a series of new reliefs depicting foundations myths of Aphrodisias.
Yıldırım, B. (2004). ‘Identities and empire: local mythology and the self- representation of Aphrodisias’, in B. E. Borg (ed.). <i>Paideia: the world of the Second Sophistic</i> (Millennium-Studien 2). Berlin: 23–52.
The Hadrianic Baths were the main monumental public baths of the city. Facing on to the South Agora they were built in the Hadrianic period
Moreby various members of the local elite and then continued to be altered and re-modelled right up into Late Antiquity. Numerous statues and relief sculpture have been recovered from the baths.
Smith, R. R. R. (2007). ‘Statue life in the Hadrianic Baths at Aphrodisias, AD 100-600: local context and historical meaning’, in F. A. Bauer and C. Witschel (eds). <i>Statuen in der Spätantike</i> (Spätantike, frühes Christentum, Byzanz. Reihe B, Studien und Perspektiven 23). Wiesbaden: 203–35.
Therkildsen, R. H. (2012). ‘A 2nd century CE colossal marble head of a woman: a case study in Roman sculptural polychromy’, <i>Tracking colour: the polychromy of Greek and Roman sculpture in the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek. Preliminary Report</i> 4: 45–63
Various architectural elements that come from uncertain contexts have been documented at Aphrodisias. Most of these date to the highpoint of building in the city,
Morein the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, but some date to Late Antiquity.
Dillon, S. (1997). ‘Figured pilaster capitals from Aphrodisias’, <i>American Journal of Archaeology</i> 101: 731–69.
Several reliefs have been found at Aphrodisias that come from unknown contexts.
Chaisemartin, N. de (1999). ‘Technical aspects of the sculptural decoration at Aphrodisias in Caria’,
Morein M. Schvoerer, N. Herz, K. A. Holbrow, S. Sturman (eds). <i>Archéomatériaux: marbres et autres roches: ASMOSIA IV, Bordeaux-Talence, 9-13 octobre 1995: actes de la IVème Conférence internationale de l'Association pour l'étude des marbres et autres roches utilisés dans le passé</i>. Bordeaux: 261–7.
Aphrodisias was famous in the Roman period for its sculptors and sculpture. The city was full of statues and many of these are now in
Morethe Aphrodisias Museum.
Hallett, C. H. (1998). ‘A group of portrait statues from the civic center of Aphrodisias’, <i>American Journal of Archaeology</i> 102.1: 59–89.
Smith, R. R. R. (2006). <i>Roman portrait statuary from Aphrodisias</i> (Aphrodisias 2). Mainz.
The North Agora was the main agora of the city and was laid out in the late 1st century BC and monumentalised over the course
Moreof the next century.
Chaisemartin, N. de (1999). ‘Technical aspects of the sculptural decoration at Aphrodisias in Caria’, in M. Schvoerer, N. Herz, K. A. Holbrow, S. Sturman (eds). <i>Archéomatériaux: marbres et autres roches: ASMOSIA IV, Bordeaux-Talence, 9-13 octobre 1995: actes de la IVème Conférence internationale de l'Association pour l'étude des marbres et autres roches utilisés dans le passé</i>. Bordeaux: 261–7.
Hundreds of complete and fragmentary sarcophagi have been found at Aphrodisias. All of them were carved in the local marble and were intended for local
Moreuse. Several different types are identifiable, the most popular being those decorated with either garlands or columnar screens.
Işik, F. (1992). 'Zum Produktionsbeginn von Halbfabrikaten kleinasiatischer Girlandensarkophage', <i>Archaologischer Anzeiger</i> 1992: 121–45.
Işik, F. (2007). <i>Girlanden-Sarkophage aus Aphrodisias</i> (Sarkophag-Studien 5). Mainz.
Öğüş, E. (2008). ‘Lahit üretimi: mermer ocağından mezar anıtına/Sarcophagus production: from quarry block to funerary monument’, in R. R. R. Smith and J. L. Lenaghan (eds). <i>Aphrodisias’tan Roma Portreleri = Roman portraits from Aphrodisias</i>. Istanbul: 169–83.
Öğüş, E. (2010). <i>Columnar sarcophagi from Aphrodisias: construction of elite identity in the Greek East</i>, Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard Unversity.
Smith, R. R. R. (2008). 'Sarcophagi and Roman citizenship', in C. Ratté and R. R. R. Smith (eds). <i>Aphrodisias papers 4: new research on the city and its monuments</i> (Journal of Roman Archaeology supplementary series 70). Portsmouth RI: 347–94.
Turnbow, H (2012). ‘Roman sarcophagi’, in C. Ratté and P. De Staebler (eds). <i>The Aphrodisias regional survey</i> (Aphrodisias 5). Mainz: 309–46.
The Sculptor's Workshop at Aphrodisias consists of a suite of small rooms immediately behind the Bouleuterion. When it was excavated in the 1960s a range
Moreof part-finished statues were found, as well as some second-hand items that were being repaired. Carving tools and signs of marble-working were also discovered. To judge from these finds, and the coins from these rooms, this workshop was in operation between the Severan period and the 4th or 5th centuries AD. It has also been proposed, however, that rather than a workshop in the traditional sense this space might have been used for storing and altering statues, some of which had already been in use elsewhere in the city.
Rockwell, P. (1991). ‘Unfinished sculpture associated with the sculptor's studio’, in R. R. R. Smith and K. T. Erim (eds). <i>Aphrodisias papers 2: the theatre, a sculptor's workshop, philosophers and coin-types: including the papers given at the Third International Aphrodisias Colloquium held at New York University on 7 and 8 April 1989</i> (Journal of Roman Archaeology supplementary series 2). Ann Arbor MI: 127–43.
Smith, R. R. R. (2011). ‘Marble workshops at Aphrodisias’, in F. D'Andria and I. Romeo (eds). <i>Roman sculpture in Asia Minor: proceedings of the International conference to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Italian excavations at Hierapolis in Phrygia, held on May 24-26, 2007, in Cavallino (Lecce)</i> (Journal of Roman Archaeology supplementary series 80). Portsmouth RI: 62–76.
Voorhis, J. A. van (2012). ‘The working and re-working of marble sculpture at the sculptor's workshop at Aphrodisias’, in B. Poulsen and T. M. Kristensen (eds). <i>Ateliers and artisans in Roman art and archaeology</i> (Journal of Roman Archaeology supplementary series 92). Portsmourth RI: 38–54.
Voorhis, J. A. van (forthcoming). <i>The sculptor’s workshop at Aphrodisias</i> (Aphrodisias 5). Mainz.
Built between the reigns of Tiberius and Nero and paid for by two local families, the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias is a monumental complex devoted to
Morethe imperial cult. The complex consists of two parallel porticoes, each of three stories, flanking a street which leads from a monumental gateway (propylon) to a temple of the imperial cult. The families who financed construction each paid for one of these porticoes which were decorated on there upper two stories with 200 marble relief panels.
These were inserted into the engaged architectural order of these facades and bear scenes depicting local and wider Greek and Roman myths, the Julio-Claudian emperors, various divinities and conquered peoples. The figures on these panels are approximately lifesize and the range of quality and techniques employed suggests that a number of different teams of sculptors were employed on this enormous project. The marble used is all local, from the nearby quarries. In the Late Roman period the north portico was damaged by an earthquake and cleared, while the south portico remained in place and was restored. For this reason most of the surviving reliefs, now on display in the archaeological museum at Aphrodisias, come from the south portico.
Rockwell, P. (1989). ‘Finish and unfinish in the carving of the Sebasteion’, in C. Roueché and K. T. Erim (eds). <i>Aphrodisias papers: recent work on architecture and sculpture, including the papers given at the Second International Aphrodisias Colloquium held at King's College London on 14 November 1987</i> (Journal of Roman archaeology supplementary series 1). Ann Arbor MI: 101–18.
Smith, R. R. R. (1987). ‘The imperial reliefs from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias’, <i>Journal of Roman studies</i> 77: 88–138.
Smith, R. R. R. (1988), 'Simulacra gentium: the ethne from the Sebasteion at Aphrodisias', <i>Journal of Roman studies</i>: 50–77.
Smith, R. R. R. (in press). <i>The marble reliefs from the Julio-Claudian Sebasteion at Aphrodisias</i> (Aphrodisias 6). Mainz.
The South Agora at Aphrodisias was the city's second most important public plaza after the North Agora. In was originally laid out in the early
More1st century AD. In its final form it was surrounded on its northern, western and southern sides with colonnades decorated with a mask and garland frieze. Access on the eastern side was provided via the monumental Agora Gate. The Basilica and the Hadrianic Baths opened on to the South Agora. Running along the centre of the South Agora was a monumental pool.
Chaisemartin, N. de (1999). ‘Technical aspects of the sculptural decoration at Aphrodisias in Caria’, in M. Schvoerer, N. Herz, K. A. Holbrow, S. Sturman (eds). <i>Archéomatériaux: marbres et autres roches: ASMOSIA IV, Bordeaux-Talence, 9-13 octobre 1995 : actes de la IVème Conférence internationale de l'Association pour l'étude des marbres et autres roches utilisés dans le passé</i>. Bordeaux: 261–7.
Waelkens, M. (1987). ‘Notes d'architecture sur l'agora et le portique de Tibère à Aphrodisias de Carie’, in J. de La Genière, K. T. Erim, N. de Chaisemartin (eds). <i>Aphrodisias de Carie: Colloque du Centre de recherches archéologiques de l'Université de Lille III, 13 novembre 1985</i>. Paris: 123–9.
The theatre at Aphrodisias was originally constructed in the Late Hellenistic period but its form as it exists today largely dates from the Augustan period,
Morewhen it was remodelled under G. Iulius Zoilos. At some point under either Claudius or Nero further changes were made to the theatre, with the addition of an entranceway, two side entrances (parodoi) onto the cavea, and further retaining walls. This work was paid for my Aristokles Molossos and his son and seems to have expanded the size of the theatre.
Chaisemartin, N. de, Theodorescu, D. (2006). ‘Le bâtiment de scène du thèâtre d'Aphrodisias: restitution et étude fonctionnelle de la structure scénique, <i>Pallas</i> 71: 57–70.
Chaisemartin, N. de (2007).‘Remarques sur la syntaxe décorative de la frons scaenae d'Aphrodisias: le rôle des décors en bande’, in in F. D'Andria and I. Romeo (eds). <i>Roman sculpture in Asia Minor: proceedings of the International conference to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Italian excavations at Hierapolis in Phrygia, held on May 24-26, 2007, in Cavallino (Lecce)</i> (Journal of Roman archaeology supplementary series 80). Portsmouth, RI: 77–90.
Theodorescu, D., Chaisemartin, N. de (1992): ‘La frons scaenae du théâtre d'Aphrodisias, aperçu sur les recherches en cours’, <i>Revue archéologique</i>: 181–7.
The Theatre Baths at Aphrodisias are the second largest in the city and are located just to the south of the theatre. They are probably
More2nd century AD in date, though they were heavily restored and perhaps remodelled later. These relief piers flanked the entrance to the baths.
C. Iulius Zoilos was a slave and then freedman of Octavian (later Augustus) before returning to his hometown of Aphrodisias, where he became a major
Morebenefactor. Zoilos was responsible for the planning of much of the civic centre of Aphrodisias and many of its early monumental projects, including important additions to the Temple of Aphrodite and the city's theatre. These reliefs come from a funerary monument or heroon honouring Zoilos, the exact location of which is unknown.
Smith, R. R. R. (1993). <i>The monument of C. Julius Zoilos</i> (Aphrodisias 1). Mainz.
The Altar of Augustan Peace (Ara Pacis Augustae) was dedicated on 30 January 9 BC, having been decreed by the Senate to celebrate the return
Moreof Augustus from Spain and Gaul on 4 July 13 BC. It was carved entirely in white marble from near Luna (modern Carrara). The Ara Pacus was originally situated next to the Via Flaminia on the Campus Martius but is now on display in a purpose-built museum, the Museo dell'Ara Pacis (the current incarnation of which was opened in 2006). In its current form the Ara Pacis is the result of reconstruction work carried out in 1938 during which hundreds of fragments were put together with the gaps filled with plaster.
The reliefs on the Ara Pacis celebrate Augustus wider political and social ideology. The upper zone of the exterior sides of the altar's enclosure are ornamented with two friezes, depicting a public procession of the key members of the Roman order: priests, magistrate, Augustus and his family, and the citizens of Rome. Beneath these reliefs the lower zone of the side walls is decorated with elaborate acanthus plants. This motif is found again on the end walls of the enclosure beneath four reliefs flanking the two entrances to the altar itself: on the front, either side of the main steps, these reliefs refer to the foundation myths of the city, to Romulus and to Aeneas respectively; on the other end, the goddess Roma enthroned on a pile of weapons and accompanied by Honos and Virtus faces across the entranceway to a relief depicting a female figure in a landscape of abundance. The identity of this female figures is much debated by she appears to represent either Peace (Pax), Land (Terra), Tellus (Mother Earth), Venus Genetrix, or perhaps even a combination of all of these intended to celebrate the multifarious character of peace and the wealth that it had brought to Italy. Inside, the altar itself it decorated with a relief showing a sacrificial procession while the interior of the enclosure walls are ornamented with garlands, paterae (offering dishes) and bulls' skulls, all reference to the actual acts of sacrifice that took place here. The quality of the carving of all of this decoration is among the highest found on any monument of any period in Rome and draws heavily on the classicizing style that dominated Augustan state art.
Conlin, D. A. (1997). <i>The artists of the Ara Pacis. The process of Hellenization in Roman relief sculpture</i>. Chapel Hill NC.
Cohon, R. (2004). ‘Forerunners of the scrollwork on the Ara Pacis Augustae made by a Western Asiatic workshop’, <i>Journal of Roman Archaeology</i> 17: 83–106.
Foresta, S. (2011). ‘La policromia dell’Ara Pacis e i colori del Campo Marzio settentrionale’, in M. Rossi (ed.). <i>Colore e colorimetria. Contributi multidisciplinari. Vol. VIIA</i> (Collana Quaderni di Ottica e Fotonica 20). Santarcangelo di Romagna: 333–40.
Hannestad, N. (2000). ‘Late-antique reworking of the Ara Pacis?’, <i>Journal of Roman Archaeology</i> 13: 311–18.
La Rocca, E. (1983). <i>Ara Pacis Augustae: in occasione del restauro della fronte orientale</i>. Rome.
Rossini, O. (2010). ‘I colori dell'Ara Pacis. Storia di un esperimento’, <i>Archeomatica: tecnologie per i beni culturali</i> 1.3: 20–5.
The Arch of Constantine was dedicated in AD 315 and spanned the Triumphal Way. Both the inscription on its attic and the continuous frieze running
Morearound it make specific reference to Constantine's victory over his rival Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in AD 312. Aside from these elements most of the other reliefs on the arch are re-used from earlier monuments, adjusted slightly to represent Constantine. The eight panels that adorn the attic and flank the dedicatory inscriptions on both sides are from a lost monument of Marcus Aurelius, probably another arch. On each the emperor has been re-carved as Constantine. The eight round reliefs beneath these are taken from a Hadrianic monument and depict hunting and sacrifice scenes. Again, the main figure on each is re-carved as Constantine or his co-emperor Licinius.
The large scenes on the walls of the central archway, meanwhile, are Trajanic in date, originally belonging together as part of a long relief, usually called the Great Trajanic Frieze. Two other sections of this frieze adorn the short ends of the attic at the top of the arch. This frieze depicts the emperor (Trajan, or perhaps Domitian, re-carved as Constantine) both in battle against barbarians and being received as victor by Victory and other personifications. In addition to these reliefs, the arch also employs eight statues of captured Dacians, from Trajan's Forum, which are erected on top of the eight fluted columns which adorn its sides. The Constantinian features of the design, then, include only the frieze - depicting scenes of Constantine's campaigns against Maxentius - and the figures of Victories and river deities which adorn the pedestal bases on each side and the spandrels. The style of these reliefs contrasts markedly with the high-quality of the earlier, re-used panels and is often used as a demonstration of the decline of artistic technique in the Late Roman period. Since the re-carved portraits of Constantine are generally of a high quality we should be careful not to dismiss all of the sculptors working in this period and it is important to distinguish between scenes telling a story, like the frieze, and those representing symbolic scenes, like the panels and roundels; even in earlier periods different styles were employed for different purposes. Still, the reliance on earlier monuments in the Arch of Constantine is striking. Whether these earlier reliefs were meant to symbolise Constantine's continuation of the practices of these earlier, 'good' emperors, or were employed simply because it was quicker and easier than producing new ones remains much debated. The different reliefs of this monument are useful either way for revealing the development of Roman sculptural techniques over time.
Elsner, J. (2000). ‘From the culture of spolia to the cult of relics: the arch of Constantine and the genesis of late Antique forms’, <i>Papers of the British School at Rome</i> 68: 149–84.
Jones, M.W. (2000). ‘Genesis and mimesis: the design of the Arch of Constantine in Rome’, <i>Journal of the society of architectural historians</i> 59: 50–77.
Pensabene, P. and Panella, C. (eds) (1999). <i>Arco di Costantino tra archeologia e archeometria</i> (Studia archaeologica ("Erma" di Bretschneider) 100).
Ryberg, I. S. (1967). <i>The panel reliefs of Marcus Aurelius</i> (Monographs on archaeology and fine arts 14). New York NY.
Touati, A.-M. L. (1987). <i>The great Trajanic frieze: the study of a monument and of the mechanisms of message transmission in Roman art</i> (Skrifter utgivna av Svenska institutet i Rom 45). Stockholm.
The Arch of Galerius is a marble high relief triumphal arch which is structurally linked as part of a prestigous 4th century imperial precinct composed
Moreof palace and a rotunda possible intended as a mausoleum. The octopyle gate between the northern end of the palace and the southern entrance of the rotunda. The arch was constructed in 298-299 AD, but wasn't dedicated until 303 AD, and celebrates the victory of the tetrarch Galerius over the Sassanid Persians and the capture of Ctesiphon. Only three pillars remain extant with substantial damage to the figures on the relief through either damnatio memoriae or iconoclasm.
Laubscher, H. P. (1975). <i>Der Reliefschmuck des Galeriusbogens in Thessaloniki</i>. Berlin.
Rothman, M. S. P. (1977). ‘The thematic organization of the panel reliefs on the arch of Galerius’, <i>American Journal of Archaeology</i> 81: 427–54.
The Arch of Titus was dedicated in AD 81-2 in honour of the recently deceased Titus. It is a single span arch and is now
Moreheavily restored. Built into a castle in the Medieval period only the central portion of the arch is original, the rest having been restored in the nineteenth century. The arch is carved in Pentelic marble, the blocks of which are a wide range of sizes.
The main decorative reliefs are on the walls of the archway itself. These depict two scenes from the triumph that Titus held with his father in Vespasian in AD 71, following his victories in Judaea. On the south, a detail of the triumphal procession is depicted: booty taken from Jerusalem is paraded on litters, among them the menorah from the sacked Great Temple. On the north, meanwhile, Titus is shown on his chariot, crowned by Victory and accompanied by representations of the Genii of the Senate and People of Rome, Roma or perhaps Honos and Virtus. Above both scenes, among the coffers on the underside of the arch Titus is shown riding to heaven on the back of an eagle. The theme of these scenes is repeated on what is left of the arch's exterior. Running around the whole monument at the level of the first entablature is a continuous frieze depicting the triumphal procession again. The spandrels are decorated with Victories while the keystones above the archway depict Roma and the Genius of the People.
Holloway, R. R. (1987). ‘Some remarks on the Arch of Titus’, <i>L'antiquite classique</i> 56: 183–91.
Pfanner, M. (1983). <i>Der Titusbogen</i> (Beiträge zur Erschliessung hellenistischer und kaiserzeitlicher Skulptur und Architektur 2). Mainz.
The Arch of Trajan at Benvento is a single, barrel-vaulted monumental arch which was built between AD 114 and 117 to celebrate the completion of
Morethe Via Traiana, which left the Via Appia at Benevento. The arch is exceptionally well-preserved and is decorated with a well-known series of sculpted reliefs of its eastern and western facades. In the attic on each facade the large dedicatory inscriptions are flanked by two relief panels. These depict, on the west facade, the emperor Trajan either arriving at or leaving Rome and the Capitoline Triad, and on the east facade, two scenes making reference to the emperor's conquests in Dacia.
Four relief panels also decorate the eastern and western facades of the arch below the attic, two on each pier. These focus on the emperor's civic acts home and abroad, such as the foundation of cities and the reorganisation of the corn supply. These panels are divided from each other by smaller panels showing Victories slaying bulls and sacrificial assistants decorating candelabra. The final component of the exterior decoration on the arch is the continuous frieze which runs around the arch at a level just above the top of the central bay. This depicts a triumph, probably Trajan's second Dacian triumph of AD 107. The climax of this complex decorative scheme, though, are the two large reliefs which decorate the walls inside the bay of the arch. On the north side a scene of sacrifice commemorates the opening of the Via Traiana. On the south side we see the emperor Trajan overseeing the handing out of money to poor children while the personifications of four cities look on. This is a reference to the emperor's alimenta scheme which was intended to help children in Italy and certainly operated in Benevento and the surrounding towns.
Rotili, M. (1972). <i>L'Arco di Traiano a Benevento</i>. Rome.
Torelli, M. (1997). '“<i>Ex his castra, ex his tribus replebuntur</i>”: the marble panegyric on the Arch of Trajan at Beneventum', in D. Buitron-Oliver (ed.). <i>The interpretation of architectural sculpture in Greece and Rome</i> (Studies in the history of art 49; Center for Advanced Study in the Visual Art, symposium papers 29). Hanover, NH; London: 145–77.
The mausoleum at Belevi is a major tomb just north of Ephesos. Probably built in the 3rd century BC it is the largest in Asia
MoreMinor after the Hecatomnid tombs of Caria.
Heinz, R. (2005). ‘Bau- und Versatztechnik in der Grabkammer des Mausoleums von Belevi’, in B. Brandt, V. Gassner, S. Ladstätter (eds). <i>Synergia: Festschrift für Friedrich Krinzinger</i> 2 vols. Vienna 1: 99–112.
Praschnicker, C. and Theuer, M. (1979). <i>Das Mausoleum von Belevi</i> (Forschungen in Ephesos 6). Vienna.
Prochaska, W. and Grillo, S. M. (2010). ‘A new method for the determination of the provenance of white marbles by chemical analysis of inclusion fluids. The marbles of the mausoleum of Belevi, Turkey’, <i>Archaeometry</i> 52: 59–82.
Butkara is an important Buddhist site in the Swat Valley. The most important stupa (or reliquary) at the site is thought to date to the
More2nd century BC but others were placed around it over the next thousand years.
Faccenna, D. (1962). <i>Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I, Swāt, W. Pakistan</i> (Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente. Centro studi e scavi archeologici in Asia, reports and memoirs 2). Rome.
Rockwell, P. (2006). ‘Ghandaran stoneworking in the Swat Valley’, in P. Callieri (ed.). <i>Architetti, capomastri, artigiani: l'organizzazione dei cantieri e della produzione artistica nell'Asia ellenistica: studi offerti a Domenico Faccenna nel suo ottantesimo compleanno</i> (Serie orientale Roma 100). Rome: 157–81.
Sardar, B. (2005). <i>Buddhist rock carvings in the Swāt Valley</i>. Islamabad.
Among the archaeological collections of the Capitoline Museums are a large number of elaborately carved marble sarcophagi. The majority of these come from Rome and
Moreits environs and are carved in imported marble, generally by carvers based in the capital.
Albertoni, M. et al. (2000). <i>The Capitoline Museums</i>. Milan.
Bertoletti, M., Cima, M., and Talamo, E. (2004). <i>Sculptures of ancient Rome: the collections of the Capitoline Museums at the Montemartini Power Plant</i>. Milan.
La Rocca, E. and Presicce, C. P. (eds) (2010). <i>Musei Capitolini: le sculture del palazzo nuovo 1</i>. Milan
The Capitoline Museums hold large numbers of statues, mainly from Rome and its environs, though some come from further afield.
Albertoni, M. et al. (2000). <i>The
MoreCapitoline Museums</i>. Milan.
Bertoletti, M., Cima, M., and Talamo, E. (2004). <i>Sculptures of ancient Rome: the collections of the Capitoline Museums at the Montemartini Power Plant</i>. Milan.
La Rocca, E. and Presicce, C. P. (eds) (2010). <i>Musei Capitolini: le sculture del palazzo nuovo 1</i>. Milan
Carrara (near ancient Luna) is famed for its quarries of white and grey marble and has been the centre of the international marble trade for
Morethe best part of the last 500 years. Marble was first quarried here in the Etruscan period but large scale extraction did not occur until the mid 1st century BC and intensified significantly in the reign of Augustus.
Many of the largest monuments erected in Rome in the late 1st century BC, 1st and 2nd centuries AD were built in in marble from Carrara. Marble from Carrara was shipped from the port of nearby Luna to where it was transported first by sledge then waggon down the steep mountainsides. Quarrying at Carrara seems to have slowed in the late 2nd century AD, perhaps due to the silting of the harbour at Luna. Work at the quarries remained much reduced until the Renaissance when demand for marble increased once more.
Dolci, E. (1980). <i>Carrara cave antiche: materiali archeologici</i>. Carrara.
Dolci, E. (1988), 'Marmora Lunensia: quarr