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Source Image: PR210_01_12 of Tondo B of Arch of Constantine

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Description

Drawing showing the types of toolmarks visible on the righthand roundel on the northern face of the eastern pier.

Monument
Arch of Constantine 
Monument Part
Tondo B 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 117 - circa ad 138 
Keywords
FigureDeityTreeSacrificeHorseAltar  
Collections
Arch of Constantine, Rome  

Location

Original Location
Rome 

Evidence for working practices

1. - Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
The flat chisel (shaded red) is used to add texture and details to the hair and beards of these figures and the leaves in the tree.

1. - Toolmarks

Process
Smoothing
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
The surface of the altar is smoothed with the flat chisel (shaded red).

1. - Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Roundel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
The boughs of the tree and most of the border of the scene is worked with the roundel (shaded green).

2. Toolmarks

Process
Smoothing
Tool
Rasp
Description
The rasp (shaded orange/yellow) is used extensively across the figures and background to smooth them. Most of the border is also rasped (at the bottom right following work with the roundel (light blue)).

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