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Source Image: PR210_02_12 of Great Trajanic Frieze Panel C of Arch of Constantine

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Description

Detail of musicians and cavalrymen.

Monument
Arch of Constantine 
Monument Part
Great Trajanic Frieze Panel C 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 106 - circa ad 117 
Keywords
HeadClothingRoman SoldierBattle  
Collections
Arch of Constantine, Rome  

Location

Original Location
Rome 

Evidence for working practices

1. - Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
The marks of the flat chisel are visible on the chainmail of these musicians and the cavalryman in front of them.

1. - Toolmarks

Process
Smoothing
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
The flat chisel is used to smooth the background.

1. - Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Roundel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
Marks of the roundel can be seen on the arm of the cavalryman at the front and in his chainmail.

2. - Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
Drill holes can be seen at the front of the headdresses of the musicians and in the chainmail of the cavalryman in the foreground.

2. - Toolmarks

Process
Smoothing
Tool
Rasp
Description
The rasp was used on the faces of the musicians, areas of their headdresses, and the arm of the cavalryman.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A channelling tool was employed following the drill on the chainmail of the cavalryman at the front.

Notes

On all of the major Trajanic reliefs, of which this is a prime illustration, particular attention is paid to arms and armour; it was evidently important that the different types of troops depicted were recognisable and accurately represented. There is much more use of the drill on this relief than on most of the Column of Trajan or the Arch at Benevento for the simple reason that the relief here is much deeper and the scene more dynamic - the drill helps to heighten the contrast, the chiaroscuro, of the scene which adds to this sense of dynamism.

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