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Source Image: PR307_08_14 of Statuette of Europa and the bull of Aphrodisias: Miscellaneous Statuary

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Description

Statuette of Europa and the bull.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Miscellaneous Statuary 
Monument Part
Statuette of Europa and the bull 
Monument Type
Statuary 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 150 - circa ad 300 
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Small sections of roughing-out with the point chisel can be behind the figure of Europa where the carver has yet to start detailed carving.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Rough shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Rough flat chiselling can be seen on the head and hindquarters of the bull.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
Finer flat chiselling is visible across most of the bull and Europa.

4. Toolmarks

Process
Smoothing
Tool
Rasp
Description
Several areas of the statuette has already been smoothed with either the rasp or very coarse abrasives, showing that the carver was moving between stages of work relatively fluidly.

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