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Source Image: PR301_01_09 of Tiberius with captive panel of Aphrodisias: Sebasteion

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Description

Detail of Sebasteion panel depicting Tiberius and a captive.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sebasteion 
Monument Part
Tiberius with captive panel 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 20 - circa ad 60 
Keywords
FigureBarbarianTiberius  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Squaring
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Vertical (90°)
Force: Hard
Description
Marks of the initial phase of squaring the blocks used in the Sebasteion can be seen on the rear side of the block in the background.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Steep (60-70°)
Force: Medium
Description
The vestiges of the roughed-out form of this panel can be seen along the bottom and in the lower left corner where point chisel marks are visible. This section of the relief would not have been visible once it was erected.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Outlining
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A deep channel, carved to judge from its narrow width using a channelling tool, was carved down the righthand side of the captive to distinguish it from the background.

4. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
Drill holes are visible in the curls of the captive's hair.

Notes

On all of the Sebasteion panels, as on so many other Roman reliefs, the carvers were working in from the front of the blocks shaping the key details of the design as they moved deeper into the stone rather than defining each form and carving back to a single plane. This is very clear in this detail where very little stone was carved away along the righthand side of the captive figure. The fact that this panel was carved from one block, like all of the panels used in the Sebasteion, means that they could quite easily have been carved before they were inserted into the building during construction, but there is no proof that this was necessarily so.

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