Loading
 |  Register

Source Image: PR305_02_04 of Garland Sarcophagus (8) of Aphrodisias: Sarcophagi

annotations
Increase Brightness Increase Contrast
Monochrome Sharpen

Description

The right end of a garland sarcophagus.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sarcophagi 
Monument Part
Garland Sarcophagus (8) 
Monument Type
Sarcophagus 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 120 - circa ad 250 
Keywords
ClampGarlandGarland Sarcophagus  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Squaring
Tool
Saw
Description
On the righthand side on this end of this sarcophagus the marks of the saw can be seen. The rows of parallel lines running across this smooth surface are characteristic of the use of a long saw with a flat blade (i.e. without teeth) which must have been operated by two people.

2. Guideline

Process
Laying-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Before the design was roughed-out its basic forms were marked out on the smooth sawn surface of the stone. The lower line of the righthand garland is still visible where it was not carved away by later work.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Vertical (90°)
Force: Medium
Description
The garland scheme was roughed-out using the point chisel and the areas around it carved back to the background plane. Marks of the point chisel are especially clear on the edges of the righthand boss and the lower background.

4. - Toolmarks

Process
Rough shaping
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Following roughing-out the left side of this end of this sarcophagus was carved further. Marks of the tooth chisel are visible on the background around the lefthand hanging element, showing that the rough bosses were carved down to their more precise forms initially using the tooth chisel. The same work was probably undertaken on the garland, the boss and the corner support.

4. - Toolmarks

Process
Flattening
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Also during this phase of work the background around the lefthand boss was flattened with the tooth chisel. The same level of finishing was not carried out all across the background at the bottom.

5. Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
The actual forms of the leaves of the garland and boss, and the grapes on the hanging elements, were worked with the flat chisel.

6. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
The drill was employed after fine shaping of the forms to accentuate details of the relief and give it a certain depth. Drilling is visible especially in the hanging grapes and the flower boss at the top.

7. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A channelling tool was employed after the drill in the flower boss to create the deep channels around the central element.

8. Clamp socket

Process
Securing
Description
A clamp holes at the top on the right shows that the lid was fixed to the chest and that this sarcophagus was used.

Notes

The two ends of this sarcophagus were worked in slightly different ways. While this end was first sawn before further roughing-out was undertaken, on the other end the surface was roughly squared with the point chisel (see PR305_02_09). Why this end was sawn while the other was worked with the point chisel is unclear but it is possible that the originally quarried block was larger than was needed and so one or more panels were sawn off this end that could be put to some other use - paving or wall revetment, for instance.

Related Images