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Source Image: PR301_01_06 of Tiberius with captive panel of Aphrodisias: Sebasteion

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Description

Close-up of the torso of the emperor on the Sebasteion panel depicting Tiberius and a captive.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sebasteion 
Monument Part
Tiberius with captive panel 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 20 - circa ad 60 
Keywords
BodyClothingTiberiusMeasuring Point  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Measuring point

Process
Measurement
Tool
Callipers
Description
The measuring point on the lower abdomen of the emperor was presumably marked out early on in the carving process to act as a point of reference for further work and was never removed.

2. - Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: ?
Description
The flat chisel is used to shape the torso and legs of the emperor.

2. - Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Roundel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: ?
Description
A round-headed chisel is used in conjunction with the flat chisel to shape the torso and legs of the emperor.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
The depth of the folds in the drapery must have been achieved using a drill.

4. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A channelling tool is used following the drill to achieve the narrow but deep folds in the drapery.

Notes

While in the Renaissance most carvers would work around a rounded form, like a leg or arm, in the Roman period carvers were happy to work down the length of these forms. The tool marks on the legs of this figure show that the carver was working down them diagonally. Another point to note in this detail is the fact that the drill holes in the drapery are largely hidden from view and most of them carved out with a channelling tool. Drill holes are rarely left visible on the Sebasteion and more generally in the Julio-Claudian period, while they become increasingly left visible in the second and third centuries AD.

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