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Source Image: PR305_02_08 of Garland Sarcophagus (8) of Aphrodisias: Sarcophagi

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Description

Detail of the right end of a garland sarcophagus.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sarcophagi 
Monument Part
Garland Sarcophagus (8) 
Monument Type
Sarcophagus 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 120 - circa ad 250 
Keywords
ClampGarlandGarland Sarcophagus  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Squaring
Tool
Saw
Description
This end of this sarcophagus was sawn before any other work was undertaken. The smooth sawn surface on the right bears the marks of a long un-toothed saw, presumably worked by two people.

2. - Guideline

Process
Laying-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
A guideline incised into the stone during the laying-out of the garland scheme can be seen on the garland on the right.

2. - Centre point

Process
Laying-out
Tool
Callipers
Description
A compass point can be seen in the middle of the boss on the right which was clearly used during the process of laying out the garland design.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Vertical (90°)
Force: Medium
Description
The forms of the garlands and bosses were roughed-out using the point chisel, the marks of which can be seen on the background on the right and areas of the background on the left.

4. - Toolmarks

Process
Rough shaping
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
To judge by the marks around the hanging grapes on the left, the main features of the design, once roughed-out, were shaped initially using the tooth chisel.

4. - Toolmarks

Process
Flattening
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Certain areas of the background, but not all of it, were also flattened with the chisel, especially the section around the finished lefthand boss.

5. Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
The detailed forms of all the elements on the left were shaped with the flat chisel.

6. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
Drilling was undertaken on the hanging grapes and the boss to accentuate their forms.

7. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
While the drill holes in the grapes were left as holes, a channelling tool was employed following drilling on the flower and in the garland to create deep grooves.

8. Clamp socket

Process
Securing
Description
A clamp hole on the top right shows that the lid was secured to the chest indicating that the sarcophagus was used for burial.

Notes

This is a detail of the sarcophagus end seen in PR305_02_07. The two ends of this sarcophagus were worked in slightly different ways. While this end was first sawn before further roughing-out was undertaken, on the other end the surface was roughly squared with the point chisel (see PR305_02_09). Why this end was sawn while the other was worked with the point chisel is unclear but it is possible that the originally quarried block was larger than was needed and so one or more panels were sawn off this end that could be put to some other use - paving or wall revetment, for instance.

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