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Source Image: PR301_05_05 of Io and Argos panel of Aphrodisias: Sebasteion

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Description

Detail of the Sebasteion panel depicting Io and Argos.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sebasteion 
Monument Part
Io and Argos panel 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 20 - circa ad 60 
Keywords
BodyIoClamp  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Steep (60-70°)
Force: Gentle
Description
Relatively delicate point chiselling can be seen behind the figures and in the background between them, the vestiges of roughing-out.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Flattening
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
The top part of the background is flattened with the tooth chisel.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
The figures are shaped with the flat chisel.

4. - Pin socket

Process
Insertion
Description
A pin hole shows that some sort of insert was originally attached to this panel, perhaps a detail in different coloured stone.

4. - Clamp socket

Process
Insertion
Description
A clamp socket can be seen above the recess into which an insert was attached.

Notes

The arm of the righthand figure in this image shows that some alteration of the size and position of these figures was undertaken during the carving process. The pair of outlines along the side of the arm show that the whole relief was initially roughed-out and then the background was flattened with the tooth chisel up to the roughed-out figures. When detailed carving began on the figures their sizes were reduced, hence the discrepancy between where the arm finished and the flat background begins. This shows that roughing-out was followed by background work and then carving on the figures, a different approach to that seen on certain monuments in Rome, notably the Column of Trajan, on which the figures were largely finished before the background was dealt with.

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