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Source Image: PR301_01_16 of Tiberius with captive panel of Aphrodisias: Sebasteion

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Description

Diagram showing toolmarks on the Sebasteion panel depicting Tiberius and a captive.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sebasteion 
Monument Part
Tiberius with captive panel 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 20 - circa ad 60 
Keywords
FigureBarbarianTiberiusMeasuring Point  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Measuring point

Process
Measurement
Tool
Callipers
Description
The measuring point above the genitalia on the figure of Tiberius appears, from its height, to have marked in during or before the roughing-out process and to have served as a reference point during the entire carving process. The exact function of these measuring points is not clear but they are a relatively common feature of Roman sculpture.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Method
Angle: Steep (60-70°)
Force: Medium
Description
Point chiseling (light blue) is visible on the bottom of the relief, in an area which would not have been visible once the panel was erected, as well as on certain patches of the background and sides of the figures. These are the remains of the initial phase of roughing-out.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Rough shaping
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: ?
Description
Tooth chisel marks are visible on the legs and lower abdomen of the imperial figure (striped area). These represent a stage of carving between roughing-out with the point chisel and finer carving with the flat and round-headed chisel.

4. Toolmarks

Process
Flattening
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: ?
Description
Most of the background is worked with the tooth chisel to create a flat, though not smooth, surface.

5. - Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: ?
Description
The flat chisel (shaded red) is used on most of the surfaces of the figures and their clothing to produce a flat but not smooth surface.

5. - Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Roundel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: ?
Description
A slightly round-headed chisel is used alongside a flat chisel on the upper portions of the figures and their clothing.

6. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
The holes left by a drill are visible in several of the deep folds in the drapery where they have not been carved through with a channeling tool. Drill holes are also visible in the hair of the captive, the eyes and ears of both figures, and the mouth of Tiberius.

7. - Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A channeling tool is used following the drill in the deep folds of the drapery.

7. - Toolmarks

Process
Outlining
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A channeling tool is also used to outline the captive along his righthand side and Tiberius along his righthand hip.

Notes

This diagram shows how the locations of different toolmarks on this panel were originally recorded by Peter Rockwell. The blue shading records the marks of the point chisel, the striped areas are where tooth chiseling is visible, while the red shaded areas are flat chiseled. The thick black lines mark places where the channeling tool has been used while the black dots are drill holes. The dot above the genitalia of the emperor marks a measuring point. The white (i.e. unshaded) areas on this diagram are places where the surface of the stone is too damaged to allow toolmarks to be identified.

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