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Source Image: PR301_09_08 of Achilles and Penthesilea panel of Aphrodisias: Sebasteion

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Description

Diagram showing toolmarks on the Sebasteion panel depicting Achilles and Penthesilea.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sebasteion 
Monument Part
Achilles and Penthesilea panel 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 20 - circa ad 60 
Keywords
AchillesPenthesilea  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Roughing-out
Tool
Point
Description
Point chisels marks, the vestiges of roughing-out, are left in those areas not visible from the ground: notably around the figures feet.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Flattening
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Description
The background is flattened all over with the tooth chisel.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Fine shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Description
All of the figures, their clothing, and the small structure that Achilles stands on are carved with the flat chisel, probably following on from tooth chisel work.

4. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
Drill holes are visible in the hair of both figures.

5. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Description
A channelling tool has been used following the drill in the hair as well as on the drapery of both figures' cloaks.

6. Toolmarks

Process
Smoothing
Tool
Abrasives
Description
The torsos, arms and faces of the figures, as well as Achilles' raised leg, are rubbed with abrasives. This is one of the few places on the Sebasteion where abrasives seem to have been used.

Notes

This diagram shows the documentation method used by Peter Rockwell during his analysis of toolmarks on the Sebasteion.

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