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Source Image: PR301_05_11 of Herakles freeing Prometheus panel of Aphrodisias: Sebasteion

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Description

Detail of Sebasteion depicting Herakles freeing Prometheus.

Monument
Aphrodisias: Sebasteion 
Monument Part
Herakles freeing Prometheus panel 
Monument Type
Relief 
Material(s)
Aphrodisian marble (Visual identification)  
Date
circa ad 20 - circa ad 60 
Keywords
HeadHeraklesPrometheusClamp  
Collections
Aphrodisias, Site and Museum  

Location

Original Location
Aphrodisias 
Current Location
Aphrodisias Museum 

Evidence for working practices

1. Toolmarks

Process
Rough shaping
Tool
Tooth Chisel
Method
Angle: Steep (60-70°)
Force: Hard
Description
The background is shaped with the tooth chisel to create texture.

2. Toolmarks

Process
Rough shaping
Tool
Flat Chisel
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Herakles' face is roughly shaped with the flat chisel but not smoothed any further than this.

3. Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Drill
Method
Vertical (90°)
Description
Drill holes are visible in the hair and beard of Prometheus and the lion's skin around Herakles' head and neck.

4. - Toolmarks

Process
Detailing
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Gentle
Description
A channelling tool is used in the lion's skin around Herakles' head and neck following drill work.

4. - Toolmarks

Process
Outlining
Tool
Channelling Tool
Method
Angle: Shallow (40-50°)
Force: Medium
Description
Deep outlines around all the figures are carved with a channelling tool.

5. Clamp socket

Process
Securing
Description
A clamp hole, presumably for securing this panel in place, can be seen at the top of this relief.

Notes

It is interesting to compare in this image the faces of Prometheus and Herakles. Prometheus, who is looking down and across and would have been visible from the ground, has a very carefully modelled and expressive face. Herakles, on the other hand, who is looking up and would not have been visible from the ground, is left with a relatively roughly finished face.

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